Water and sewer facilities of the Ancient East
Water and sewer facilities of the Ancient East
WATER AND SANITATION
WATER AND SEWER FACILITIES OF THE ANCIENT EAST
Facilities for purposes of water supply and sewage, began to rise in ancient times, since, when the first large settlements that were centers of human culture and economic activity. Such centers existed in the 4-3-th millennia BC in the valleys of rivers Nile, Tiger and Euphrates rivers, where they lived and developed the people of Egypt, Sumer and Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia, Hettie, as well as in India (the city of Harappa. Mohenjo-Daro) and China.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SANITARY ENGINEERING
The basis of their culture was farming, which required artificial irrigation. This explains the formation of cultural centers in river valleys, whose waters could be used both for irrigation and for watering. On territories of these States were built grandiose for those times GI,GN 0 technical installations, the purpose of which was to detain water ü ” rivers in the flood period and then spend them as needed in the dry season. For this purpose there was constructed a complex network of Cana fishing, dams and reservoirs.
The first waterworks the Ancient East p based on agronomic needs. However, the growth of nasute associated with developed irrigated agriculture, which gave excellent yields, and no .groundwater for water supply purposes has led to the need for a network of canals for domestic water supply. Some .channels were subsequently used for wastewater disposal, and the largest of them in connection with the development of trade relations — as a means of communication
The implementation of such a complex hydraulic structures of the Ancient East with a low level of technology, limited use of basic tools, was .only possible due to the presence of huge masses of slaves, which was available to the ruling classes, and through the simple cooperation of employees. “On a colossal scale the value of a simple cooperation is found in those giant buildings that were built by the ancient Asiatic Nations, the Egyptians, Etruscan.kitchen, etc.” 1 the Nature and prevalence of these structures show that their builders had great reserves of experience and knowledge in the field of hydraulic engineering.
In Egypt, Assyria and Babylonia used as various types of simple water-lifting mechanisms type “cranes”, buckets tied to ropes, etc. which were used for lifting water from rivers and canals for purposes of irrigation and water supply of settlements. For irrigation of the hanging gardens of Babylon water from the Euphrates by means of such primitive devices was approximately 92 g and is then distributed under pressure through metal pipes.
In areas with deep groundwater wells were constructed with depth of several tens of meters. For example, in Egypt the depth of the wells reached 90 m.
Water fortified cities in the Hittite state was carried out using caches. The water source was located at the foot of the cliffs, and the approach to it was carved in her column.
For the purposes of water supply and sanitation were used stone, ceramics and metal (copper and lead) pipes. Later sewage facilities were arranged and made of baked bricks.
In China since ancient times there was irrigation, which was built a dense network of channels. On the banks of the yellow river and the Yangtze river more than two thousand years BC, there were built significant hydraulic structures serving for flood protection and for water supply, irrigation and navigation. The Chinese attained great skill in digging deep to lodzi and device special projectiles for lifting water (winches blocks. including differential blocks).
Of interest is the water wheel made of bamboo and powered by the flow of water in a river or channel (Fig. –
Water was generated with bamboo pipes, attaching x at some angle to the circumference of the wheel. When the impeller rotates, the water received in the open end of the tube, when she was in a moving stream, and flowed out through it to the chute .the time of passage of the tube through the highest point (i.e. when switching from lifting to lowering).
In some countries, like. for example in India, irrigation facilities and reservoirs and wells were built according to local climatic conditions (for example, rare but heavy rains).
The accumulation of a large number of people on small space with no elements of improvement caused the spread of epidemics governing the mass loss of the workforce, and sometimes total loss of residents. In this regard, emerging and maturing elements of hygienic knowledge and this explains the worries that inevitably showed the dominant classes while on public hygiene. Recent regulation has resulted in a form of religious ritual rules Are regulations all of them ancient religions about the purity of the body, about the ablutions, bathing in sacred waters, etc. Interference of religion in hygiene due to the fact that Ministers of a religious cult, the priests, was not only “divine”, but a very real human power, the power of the ruling class interested in preserving belonged to him gratuitous labour.
According to historical records the birthplace of hygienic and medical knowledge should be regarded as India and Tibet. From here they spread throughout the ancient world. In India, for example, the first sanitary-technical devices for the removal and the disposal of sewage.
The feature of sanitary-technical devices of the ancient world was the fact that the municipal and domestic sewage were developed independently from each other. This house sewage only applied to divert water from courtyard pools and fountains directly or after their economic use (in bathrooms, kitchens, irrigation of gardens and GD) in the nearest water channel, the thalweg, or street drains. Such drainage usually took place in the palaces of rulers, temples, public places and in private homes of rich people.
Original city sewer were arranged in the form of a system of open ditches, the walls of which were strengthened with stone or burnt brick, and then covered with stone slabs or vaults, developing into a closed manifold. It used to be floatable closed sewer system for atmospheric descent and part of the groundwater. This same sewer was ;and contaminated household water and excrement.
ü General the whole system of branched channels represented the hap complex engineering structure and intertwined with a system of canals, used for irrigation and navigation purposes.
For the device of water supply and Sewerage were applied to pottery and metal pipes (copper and lead).
The most characteristic type of Egyptian sewage that existed 2500 years BC has been found in the temple of the king V dynasty Sahur (near Abusir Memphis). External Sewerage, ö designed to drain rainwater from the yard, consists of a series of troughs carved into the stone slabs that paved the courtyard.’)Ke – LOBA have a depth and slope sufficient to drain rainwater
(Fig. 2). Internal drainage serving to drain polluted water, consisted of pipes with a diameter of 45 mm, made of copper sheets 1.5 mm thick, laminated in a seam. These pipes are laid between the limestone plates and go into the yard to close the tray, hollowed in the thickness of the yard zajmowania. Contaminated water was diverted outside the building.
An example of more recent buildings can serve to open the French scholar V. SLES sewer of the Palace of the Assyrian king SAR – gon in Garbage relating to the VII century BC (Fig. 3). Receiver Sewerage served a round hole in the upper plate, through which waste water gets into the vertical well, and from there the branch into the main channel. The bottom of the channel is lined with asphalt limestone plates sizes 1,12×1,12×0,1 M. Plates a few inches wider than the channel. The gadfly of the channel are made of bricks without the use of mortar. This design of the arch gave the opportunity if necessary to disassemble part of the arch and enter the channel.
In order to protect from erosion the surface water over the roof of ka Nala bridge were arranged in two rows of baked bricks, the bottom of which was located on the sand layer, and the second was g l ow of the asphalt. The shape of the arch suggests that the Assyrians empirically followed the laws of statics.