Sevastopol – Landscape monuments, Cave city, Cave
Sevastopol is situated on the territory of two ancient cities which are more than two and a half thousand years (Chersonesos, Balaklava).
Numerous caves, formed naturally, thousands of years used by ancient people. They probably found shelter by ancient people, and later the Cimmerians and the Tauri. The first known man-made structures beneath the earth became cave monasteries VII — IX centuries of our era.
From 1783 the construction of the city. Built buildings, docks, berths, roads and underground constructions simultaneously. The Navy needed secure warehouses and a powder magazine. Caves in the rocky banks of the Sevastopol bays was a perfect fit for use, they were deepened and widened, turning them into secure storage naval assets and ammunition.
The Crimean war 1853-1856 gg confirmed the need for underground structures. They were not only warehouses of food and ammunition, but also the perfect refuge for the population and personnel of the troops. By this time, the size of the dungeon exceeded twenty-five thousand square meters. In addition, both the warring sides was carried out so-called mine war. Opponents tried to lay the underground tunnels under fortifications the enemy to undermine the fortifications. The entrance to one of these galleries is located on the Historic Boulevard .
In the beginning of the last century were built a multi-level underground fortifications tower batteries BB-35 and BB-30 .
To this day not confirmed, nor denied, the legend of the existence of a system of underground tunnels on the North side. which originated in the basement of St. Nicholas Church and connect the FORTS of the North side, and exit on the opposite side of the Bay.
Gradually expanding, the underground structures were turned into yet another Sebastopol — underground.
During the Soviet period underground Sevastopol continued to develop. Its expansion started in the mid 30-ies. Built ammunition depots, command posts and communication centers. Underground housed infrastructure: reservoirs for fuel and water, field hospitals with operating theatres, premises for personnel of the troops, the Autonomous power plant.
At the end of the thirties began construction of the facility under the name “Mole”. Was conceived the colossal project of underground power plant on the southern shore of the Sevastopol Bay. Two turbo-generators with a capacity of twenty-five thousand kilowatts, the mill for grinding coal, silos to store it and so on – all of this was to occupy a space of thirty thousand square meters and occupy five underground floors. But the war began. To finish the power plant was only in the fifties.
During the war, Sevastopol was almost destroyed by the Nazis. Survived only a few houses, the inhabitants of the city went down into the earth. In the galleries worked the factory workshops and workshops that were put on the front, mortars and ammunition, shells and mines, as well as uniforms. In the galleries housed command posts, headquarters and hospitals. The underground city still keeps the secrets of the last days of the defense. Many years later it became known that the explosions that hit the arches of Inkerman adits were produced by the NKVD on the orders of command, leaving Sevastopol. Under the rubble of boulders buried alive were heavily wounded fighters, the hospital’s staff and had taken refuge here civilians of Sevastopol. Huge boulders stand in the place of the exploded tunnels. In recent years, the military together with the emergencies Ministry are working on mine clearance of the dilapidated tunnels. Found and defused a large number of shells and other ammunition, but full clearance Inkerman dungeons is still far.
After the war in 1952 was formally approved Stalin’s plan for creating the city’s underground. The appearance of a real nuclear threat was the reason for this decision was the impetus for the further construction of underground structures.
Anti-nuclear shelter of Sevastopol was created so that military and civilian targets were not only protected but also have an opportunity to continue their activities. Despite the fact that the city was still in ruins, the main forces of the builders were thrown to the embodiment of the Grand project.
Under each military area of the Central part of the city was built underground understudy (under the headquarters staff, under the clinic – clinic and so on). The plan was so ambitious that by the time Khrushchev came to power he carried less than half.
The construction of the underground city is almost cooked. Into operation managed to pass only a few shelters for the population. There were bunk beds, bathrooms, sinks, showers, supplies of food, water and medical supplies. Multi-ton steel doors protected the entrances to the shelter and could withstand a nuclear attack.
The unfinished plants were mothballed, according to some information secret blueprints and schematics were lost, some underground structures still used by the military units of the black sea Fleet of the Russian Federation and the Naval Forces of Ukraine.
In 1958 in Balaklava there is a new structure “Object 825 “. It’s a base for submarines located in the mountain Tavros. The entrance to three hundred meters underground arcuate channel closed steel gate. Here at the underground plant could be repaired at the same time two submarines. Now it is a Museum of the cold war.
Because of the absence in the city budget funds for the maintenance and servicing of dungeons, many of them destroyed, and their entrances bricked up. Only some shelters and tunnels are used in commercial structures. Their lease luxury restaurant, private pawnshops, informal youth club, in the underground hospital is a veterinary clinic. And in the Inkerman adits is a factory of sparkling wines.
According to some experts during the existence of Sevastopol was built about 60 underground command posts and communication nodes. More than 100 coastal batteries and underground facilities designed to launch rockets. Over 100 powder magazines and stores various types of weapons and ammunition, including nuclear. About 150 underground storage of food, fuel and other military equipment.
In addition, built over 200 shelters for the personnel of the Navy and of refuge for the population of the city. Total area of underground facilities exceeds 350 thousand square meters.
Underground Sevastopol will be long kept many secrets about the unknown underground passages and tunnels, which you can get from one district to another, situated at a distance of 10-15 kilometers from each other