French architect Jean-Pierre Uden announced the disclosure of the secret of the great pyramid. The researcher believes that the huge 137-meter structure was built from the inside out: the architects used an external design reminiscent of modern scaffolding, and phased construction of several layers of stone blocks. Thus, the pyramid was constructed according to the principle of matryoshka dolls: inside the pyramid of Cheops is somewhat smaller, bearing the weight of external walls. Russian experts share this opinion, noting that between the structure of different layers can take decades.
“This hypothesis could be true, — has informed our edition Egyptologist, fellow of the historical faculty of Moscow state University Olga Tomashevich. — It is known that, for example, the pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser was built in three stages: external cladding is clearly visible the previous layer. By the way, this pyramid subsequently increased even entirely one way.” Djoser, the first Pharaoh, who had granted himself to the rank of God, lived in the XXVIII century BC, and that to him belongs the idea of building the ancient pyramids, which in contrast to the later steps were built in several levels. “However, even before the pyramids early architecture Egyptian architects built mastaba — rectangular burial buildings, the height of which Continue reading
Brick architecture in ancient China.
● The appearance of the name “gold brick” can be explained by two factors. One of the reasons is when we tap on the brick heard a ringing sound that resembled the ringing of metal. The second reason for this name lies in its price. The production of the bricks were quite expensive and requires investment of considerable material and labor resources that could not afford even every wealthy man. It was a brick of very high quality, designed for the Imperial palaces. Manufacturing technology of gold brick was strictly observed throughout the production process. It included choice of clay with the appropriate characteristics, if not sufficient amount of the desired clay, we applied the methods of obtaining artificial clay with desired characteristics. After preparing the clay followed her shaped and then the blank bricks were sent for drying, and after a certain amount of time was subject to burning. And the firing process was the most time-consuming and energy-consuming. The first month of the brick was burned on smoldering husk, the second month – on wood chips, in the third month the brick was burned on the branches and on the final stage of the firing occurred on the pine branches for forty days. Altogether it is 130 (one hundred thirty!) days. The laying of the gold brick was also conducted without undue fuss – the masons were obliged to Continue reading
The Caucasus many times been the target of invasions by foreign aggressors, but one of the most destructive was the Mongol invasion. The first reconnaissance units of the Mongols appeared in the Caucasus in 1220-1222, but the conquest of the steppes and foothills of the North Caucasus was the result of large-scale campaigns of 1237-1240. With fire and sword passing through the Caucasus, the Mongols defeated the Kipchaks, Circassians and Alans. The Alan settlements in the plains of Chechnya and Ingushetia were wiped off the face of the earth.
The Mongols tried to penetrate and in the mountains, inhabited by Vainakh tribes, but met there with stubborn resistance and failed to break. Tactical properties wooded and rough terrain helped the highlanders to defend their positions and created insurmountable difficulties to the Mongolian warriors, who grew up in the steppes. Therefore maintained its independence from the Mongols and the mountaineers of Dagestan and retreated to the mountains a part of the Alans and Circassians.
However, the Mongols soon abandoned attempts to conquer the inhabitants of the mountain gorges. Historical Chronicles report that in 50-70-ies of the XIII century in the North Caucasus continued armed struggle of local people against the Mongol invaders. However, easily accessible steppes and foothills firmly entrenched in the world of the Empire the descendants of Chinggis Khan. After its collapse, several Mongol States (uluses), the North Caucasian lowlands were ceded to the ulus of Jochi, or Golden Horde. Dzhuchieva ulus khans, whose power was spread Continue reading