THE MYSTERIOUS DOLMENS OF ANTEQUERA
THE MYSTERIOUS DOLMENS OF ANTEQUERA
In the province of Malaga you can see megalithic constructions ancestors of the Spaniards.
Everyone has heard about these megalithic* structures of antiquity, like Stonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids. However, the claim that only very few our compatriots – immigrants living in southern Spain or coming here as tourists, heard about the dolmens of Antequera.
The first mention of one of them – Dalmine Menga (or Mangal) – date back to 1530, the ninth year and is located in málaga notes the Bishop Caesar Riario. In other ancient, but later manuscripts can also be found mention of this dolmen. But the first research about him, we meet only in 1842, the year – in the work of Cristobal Fernandez – and then, in 1847, the year – in the labour málaga architect Rafael mitjana beach and Edison entitled “Notes on the druid temple found in the area of Antequera”. From this time, you can say that Spain began the study of these mysterious megalithic structures.
In the 19th century, the dolmen of Menga visited and described many Spanish and foreign historians and archaeologists, such as Gongora, Siret, Gomez-Moreno, Mélida, Mortele, Obermayer, Leisner, etc. as well as famous travellers lady Louisa Tenison (1852 year) and prosper mérimée (1853-m). Previously mentioned his visit this exceptional building ancient times, the Minister of the court of Joseph Bonaparte (Bonaparte travel with his entourage stayed in Antequera 13-14 March 1810, the year – approx. author) Miot de Melito. Another knight of the retinue of Napoleon – Colonel Claremont Tonnerre – also mentions it. Known and visit the dolmen of the king Alfonso XII on 15 January 1885.
So what is the dolmen of Menga and later found near the dolmen VIERA?
The dolmen of Menga, and this name is known the same time as the dolmen – a megalithic structure built of 32 huge stone – orthostat (from the Greek. orthos – straight and states – standing). The weight of the largest of them is 180 tons, and dimensions – 6×7 meters. It is a stone slab set vertically.
The depth of the dolmen with a covered gallery is 27.5 m. the Height increases from the inlet, where it is 2.7 m to 3.5 m in the chamber. Maximum width in last third of the chamber is 6 m. Here, in the chamber, a dug well with a diameter of 1.5 m and a depth of 19.5 m. the Dolmen is hidden bulk of the hill with a diameter of 50 m, which was originally larger, oriented to the North-East.
Often orthostate decorated with monumental reliefs, mostly religious and symbolic-mythological content. So, the first monolith to the left of the entrance were discovered anthropomorphic figures.
Modern research dates back to the construction of the dolmen 3790-3730 BC. Its name comes from the Celtic word malformed Men-Lac’h – Men Gal, which means “sacred stones”.
Hypotheses about what in reality was for the people of the bronze age, this colossus built of huge stone blocks, probably as much as about the Egyptian pyramids. Because scientists have extremely scanty material for the study (inside of the dolmen not found anything meaningful that could give scientists some kind of hunch), and hypotheses are all one exotic other. Astronomical Observatory, acoustic design, home for animals or dwarfs, ultrasonic emitters…
Look more reasonable hypotheses that link these buildings to burial mounds or ritual complexes (altars, altars).
Managed to figure out how these were built of complex architectural structures of antiquity. Helped in research of a Russian scientist Sergei Semenov. He with his students and voluntary helpers have reproduced the dolmen of Menga, using only wood and ropes.
Ancient people were great astronomers. The entrance to the dolmen is oriented to the point of summer solstice, coinciding with the straight contour of the mountain Lovers (peña de los Enamorados). So when the sun rose above the mountains, its first rays fell straight into the tunnel of the dolmen and it showed the back wall of his cell. Mountain Lovers could not fail to attract the attention of the ancient priests: her view of a human head facing to the sky, undoubtedly used them in their religious rituals.
Seventy metres from the dolmen of Menga in 1587, the year was discovered another dolmen, which later was named VIERA. But then this reference is lost in centuries and until the 20th century no one remembered. At that time, the dolmen was sealed massive multi-ton boulder. Later, when this dolmen was again opened in 1903, the year the brothers Antonio and Jose VIERA (by the name which it got its name), the entrance to it was already open and the dolmen was empty.
As Menga, it is built of orthostats, however, unlike the dolmen of Menga, VIERA has a long corridor and two of the portal, placed one on the way to the camera. Building this dolmen belongs to 2500-2000 BC
Near the dolmens in the area that is now called Cerro de Marimacho, scientists have unearthed a small ancient settlement Dating back to 2600-2200 BC. The inhabitants of this settlement constructed semi-subterranean huts.
Seems incredible that they could build such a complex and massive structure on your own, as the construction of one such dolmen comparable effort with the construction of the Cathedral of Notre Dame! But the religious caste, the druids, one of the most mysterious and insufficiently explored in the history of mankind, erected similar dolmens and other places of worship throughout modern Europe. If the Menga and VIERA dolmens is their work, then it explains a lot, and we can only rejoice that we can easily visit these dolmens and to see the earliest history of our civilization.