French architect Jean-Pierre Uden announced the disclosure of the secret of the great pyramid. The researcher believes that the huge 137-meter structure was built from the inside out: the architects used an external design reminiscent of modern scaffolding, and phased construction of several layers of stone blocks. Thus, the pyramid was constructed according to the principle of matryoshka dolls: inside the pyramid of Cheops is somewhat smaller, bearing the weight of external walls. Russian experts share this opinion, noting that between the structure of different layers can take decades.
“This hypothesis could be true, — has informed our edition Egyptologist, fellow of the historical faculty of Moscow state University Olga Tomashevich. — It is known that, for example, the pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser was built in three stages: external cladding is clearly visible the previous layer. By the way, this pyramid subsequently increased even entirely one way.” Djoser, the first Pharaoh, who had granted himself to the rank of God, lived in the XXVIII century BC, and that to him belongs the idea of building the ancient pyramids, which in contrast to the later steps were built in several levels. “However, even before the pyramids early architecture Egyptian architects built mastaba — rectangular burial buildings, the height of which did not exceed ten meters, — says Ms. tomašević. Their build was much easier than the pyramid. The history of the buildings of the pyramids is an evolutionary process. The pyramid of Djoser is the most simple, the stones of which it is composed, roughly hewed, and the bumps and the cracks between them were simply clogged with gravel”.
“This pyramid unlike the subsequent step, and there are not blocks on top of each other, but rather lie: they are inclined at an acute angle perpendicular to the base of the building, — says the egyptologic research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences Roman Nuts. Precisely angled walls and allowed to build such tall structures out of rough stones: if the stones are hewn poorly told one another, the pyramid would crumble. But then there was a real revolution: the pyramid ceased to be step and acquired the shape of a regular tetrahedron. The answer to the question, what caused the erection of this pyramid, is that a stage just can’t be large. And from the uneven stones of which is composed of the pyramid of Djoser, it is impossible to build one big face. That’s when the blocks become larger, the possibility became very real”.
By the way, and the pyramid of Djoser does not look small: its base is an irregular square with sides 110 and 120 m, and its height — 60 m. “the fact that each new pyramid is built using the accumulated experience, — speaks g-n Nuts. Builders tried to make it higher than the previous one. Besides a constant increase in the height of the pyramids was a tribute not only to the desire to exceed the predecessors, but also a religious-philosophical views — the pyramid symbolized the “primordial hill” and “stairway to heaven”. This is why technology is constantly improving. If the pyramid of Djoser, in essence, is an add-on previously built a mastaba, the pyramid of Khufu, the stones are carefully customized”. It is possible that the matryoshka principle not that other, as a natural opportunity to increase made decades earlier construction given the new time, the existence of new technologies. Initially, the pyramid of Djoser, the mastaba was represented by a width of 63 m and a height of 8 m, and under the mastaba, at a depth of 28 m, was a whole system of tunnels with burial chamber and rooms for different items. To fully cover all the maze of above-ground construction, the builders and subsequently undertook the construction of the step pyramid of Djoser.
“For the construction of the pyramids the Egyptians used and embankments, and a variety of devices — however, rather primitive: for example, the Egyptian builders of the widely used levers, but the mechanisms that use a counterweight to the era of construction of the great pyramids were not yet known, they were invented in the second half of the second Millennium BC, explains Ms. tomašević. — The mystery of the construction of the pyramids for so long was considered unsolved largely because the embankment during the construction of the pyramids rising several tens of meters, and then gently cleaned. And only near the unfinished pyramid they survived. By the way, in the construction of the pyramids was observed one more principle, greatly facilitate the work, the higher the pyramid, the smaller blocks were used”. However, according to Mr. Smith, a counterweight was used: in the Arsenal of the ancient Egyptian architects were wooden rocker, rocking chairs, the so-called beaks (device, resembling well the crane), etc.
“In one of the tombs of the fifth dynasty there is an interesting image: builders are already using a primitive wheel, fastened to the ladder, — speaks g-n Nuts. — The ladder was pushed up, lifting her on the stones. This is probably the first image of the wheels at all, although it is believed that during the construction of the pyramids Egyptians did not know of the wheel. But the circle shape is very organic shape found in nature. For example, in Assyria, the builders used the following method of transporting heavy loads: under the base boulders were placed trunks of young trees peeled off with the peel. Boulders simply rolling down this slippery trunks, and workers shifted them along the way. In Egypt wood was scarce, that’s why there was used another method, depicted in the figures: under the shipping skids “sled” Lily clay substance, reducing the ratio of the inertia of the slide”.
However, the creation of builders seems to be not so fantastic, if to take into account the following assumption. “There is another much more interesting hypothesis: in the base of the pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) is a rock — tells g-n Nuts. — On a rocky slope, probably slaves and dragged the blocks. The most significant argument in favor of this hypothesis is the presence of the inclined gallery in this pyramid. I note that the pyramid was created in rocky terrain: stone blocks cut directly from the rock and transported on the rocky areas. On the sand so heavy lumps to lug simply impossible”.
According to Ms. tomašević, although it is known that the pyramid — tombs of kings, their role in the complex system of religious beliefs of Egyptians remains unclear. Too few sources left from that distant era, to get full idea about the purpose of these cyclopean structures. Similarly, it is impossible to establish with absolute certainty how exactly the pyramids were built. “Unfortunately, from the era of the construction of the pyramids there are very few written monuments: to the downfall of the Ancient Kingdom of rebellious crowds of people simply have destroyed many of them, — complains g-n Nuts. — Therefore, the method of construction of the pyramids is still not known reliably. The only one hundred percent guaranteed chance to learn the truth is to completely disassemble the pyramid.”