Kharkiv underground is a different world, contrary to all familiar to us. We got used to the fact that every day we see broad avenues and familiar streets, a series of cars and solid blocks of houses. But this is only visible Kharkov, and there is underground, invisible, and there is a different life and different policies. At first glance, the underground galleries and halls there is static, stability and peace. And actually there invisible look slow motion: slowly somewhere water flows, forming on the walls intricate patterns that grow and crumble stalactites and stalagmites, formed his life – a little-known science organisms are born, live and die without ever leaving the dungeon. Getting into such places, not notice how you stop and forgetting about the troubles of the world “ground” just listen to yourself, look around and see around you the other life. Absolutely unusual emotions!
In ancient times our ancestors-Slavs had a clear view of the three constituent of the universe: the earthly world, the heavenly world and the world underground. To see some of the world underground with your own eyes, be sure to stock up on clothes you do not mind staining (it will not hurt the jacket, because the temperature of underground galleries does not exceed +10 degrees), comfortable footwear (preferably rubber boots), a flashlight (preferably a couple), and, of course, photos the machine with the flash!
In this article we want to tell the reader some facts about the history and present of Kharkiv underground . in other words, little to lift the veil of secrecy over this mysterious underground labyrinth.
Kharkov catacombs is one of the most amazing and mysterious pages of urban history. How many rumors, legends and speculation it generated! But over time, the gloom is not only not disappeared, but has become only stronger. To this day many citizens are convinced that the dungeon is nothing more than a beautiful legend. Nevertheless, the rumor about the secret underground passages under the Kharkov never died. In the early XX century, when somebody from Kharkiv suddenly became rich, people have attributed this to the hoards, as if extracted from underground. Remember Kharkiv and about the taynitskaya tower of the Kharkiv fortress, where, by legend, the moves stretched for tens of kilometers. The formation of sinkholes in the city center, numerous cracks of old buildings explained, as a rule, the existence of underground tunnels. Nevertheless, close this question nobody asked.
Only by the early twentieth century, when Kharkiv has undergone a building boom, citizens were struck by the incredible flow of “underground” discoveries. When digging the foundations of new buildings, the builders found a lot of underground tunnels. House Zheverzheeva, Land Bank, Pasincovschi passage, the Azov-don Bank, Commercial club, house Freiman, today these names do not say anything simple Kharkiv, and at the time they were on everyone’s lips. Newspaper “Morning” and “South rim” were regularly printed sensational remarks about the new “underground” discoveries.
And what do we know now? First of all, Kharkiv dungeons are divided into four time groups .
The most ancient is primitive caves Dating from pre-Christian, pagan times. They found the remains of burial places of the Slavs-the Gentiles.
The second dungeon dug in the TWELFTH and THIRTEENTH centuries, which indirectly confirms the more ancient “age” of Kharkov than it is officially considered.
The third (most active) period of construction of the underground Kharkov attributed to Peter the great’s era. For protection against the Tatars and the Swedes had built secret passages underground to forests, rivers, limiting Kharkov from the North, for the evacuation of citizens and sabotage behind enemy lines. It was in that era “spontaneously” arising tunnels turned into a single streamlined system lined with brick galleries. They could escape from attacks children and women, warriors. Using underground tunnels, it was possible to secretly escape from the city. Later dungeons are supposed to be used as military depots and prisons. It is curious that the dungeon is characterized by excellent acoustics, and hiding in them, people heard what happened upstairs, over their heads. Moreover, the defenders of Kharkiv’s fortress made a large number of false branches and tunnels, traps and dead ends to confuse the enemy, if he dares to stick a nose into the catacombs.
And, of course, underground construction era of the USSR: an underground passage from the building of the NKVD on Sovnarkomovskaya street to the headquarters of the military district on the square of Rudnev, and an underground passage from the regional party Committee to metro station “University”. With the construction of the city’s metro system has resumed the rumors about the dungeons and the rest in them the rich treasures. When the builders completed the tunnel under the city centre, lovers of sensations were very frustrated treasure was not there. So for a long time in the underground catacombs of the authorities did not pay attention.
Then Kharkov catacombs at your own risk decided to investigate the members of the speleological club “Variant” and public organization “children of the Underground”. They constituted the largest archive of information about the catacombs. Unfortunately, information on excavations of the pre-revolutionary period is very sketchy, but the documents and reports of almost all destroyed. From the history of Kharkov is known that V, Pushkinskaya str. die cow, V in Mordvynivka lane horse gendarme, W G. – the horse-tram car, and in Soviet times — in the courtyard of the Executive Committee — a car in the area Goncharovsky dam – tram. That there are certain subsurface within the city and to this day occasionally provide indirect evidence of what is happening collapses.
To get into the catacombs, you need to find the entrance (manhole), as a rule, it is very narrow, so sometimes they have to move on their bellies, and sometimes familiar to us. Speleologists say that the walls and partially destroyed the arch of the Kharkov catacombs built from red brick, on which traces of groundwater. The floor in all cases, excavation, vaults carefully lined and plastered. All buildings produce a sense of reliability, thoroughness and accuracy. That it is built for a different time and they say the size and quality of bricks, all the moves clearly examined repeatedly rebuilt and reconstructed.
The length of the Kharkov catacombs can be compared to the vaults of the Moscow Kremlin . although they are not officially recognized and they are not given the status of a monument of history and architecture. The constant vibration of ground transportation, reconstruction and construction of buildings, laying and repair of city networks contribute to the destruction of the underground vaults. If over the next decade, these underground structures are not put in order, they will fail, which will cause the danger of destruction above them have houses and other buildings.
Therefore, the exploration of underground voids is relevant and necessary for the prevention of negative technogenic and natural processes that should be anticipated in the design and construction of our city.