In the Gothic architecture reflected a fundamental change in the structure of medieval society. The world’s leading architectural type became the city’s Cathedral. frame system of Gothic architecture (Lancet arches lean against columns; lateral raspor cross vaults, laid on the ribs, transmitted by flying buttresses to the buttresses) has allowed to create an unprecedented height and breadth, the interiors of cathedrals to cut through the walls huge Windows with multi-colored stained glass Windows. The aspiration of a Cathedral up expressed huge openwork towers, Lancet Windows and portals, curved statues, the intricate ornament. In addition, the developed urban planning and civil architecture: houses, town hall, shopping arcades, the city tower with elegant decor. In sculpture, stained-glass Windows, picturesque and carved altars, miniatures, decorative items of symbolic-allegorical story combined with new spiritual aspirations, lyrical emotions; expanded interest in the real world, the nature, the richness of experiences. In 15-16 centuries the Gothic was replaced by Renaissance.
The principles of Gothic
As the Romanesque style. Gothic was developed under the auspices of the Catholic Church. Gothic art remained primarily a cult for the intended purpose and religious topics. Hence, symbolic and allegorical way of thinking and the traits of conventions in artistic language. From the Romanesque Gothic architecture inherited the headship of the architecture in the system of arts, traditional types of religious buildings. The leading type in the era Gothic architecture was the Cathedral as the highest example of synthesis of architecture, sculpture, painting (represented primarily by stained-glass Windows). Huge, incommensurable with the man the space of the Cathedral, the aspiration to the sky its towers and arches, the subordination of the statues of dynamic architectural rhythms, surreal glow of stained glass had a emotional impact on believers.
The development of Gothic art reflected changes in the structure of medieval society: the beginning of the formation of centralized States, the growth and consolidation of cities, extension of secular forces — urban, commercial, craft-Guild, as well as the court-knight’s layers. In the Gothic period, with a higher level of public awareness, craft, technology, weakened the foundations of medieval religious and dogmatic worldview, expanded the possibilities of knowledge, aesthetic development of the real world, especially in the area of human relations, spiritual aspirations, lyrical emotion. In this period developed urban planning and civil architecture: houses, town hall, Guild houses, shopping arcades, warehouses and city towers-“Beffroi”; developed urban architectural ensembles, which included religious and secular buildings, fortifications, bridges, wells. The main town square was surrounded by houses with arcades, retail and warehouse space in the lower floors. Usually from the square dispersed radial streets. Narrow facades of two-storey houses with high Gables lined up along the streets and embankments. Improved the construction of fortifications: cities were surrounded by walls, gate towers were decorated; the castles of kings and nobles lost a forbidding appearance, was turned into a fortress complexes, palaces, religious buildings. In the centre, dominating buildings, the Cathedral or the castle .
Complicated frame structure of a Gothic Cathedral has allowed to overcome the squat massiveness of the Romanesque buildings, to facilitate the walls and vaults, to create a dynamic spatial cells and increase the interior. The Cathedral became the center of urban life, often hold the entire population of the city. Along with the divine service in cathedrals were held theological debates, played out the mystery, was the Assembly of citizens. Synthesis of arts in the Gothic is richer and more complex than in the Romanesque style, the system of subjects is much wider and more logical; it reflected the medieval view of the world.
The main form of art was sculpture. Statues and sculptural groups on the facades of cathedrals or on the altar screen of received artistic content and developed of plastic form. The ossification and the isolation pillars Romanesque statues were replaced by the mobility of the figures, their appeal to each other and to the viewer. In comparison with antiquity the range of emotional and ethical values has changed: in art became the subject of motherhood, the theme of mental suffering, martyrdom, mental stability of the person. Appeal to diversity and contradictions of life has caused the complexity, the conflicts, the drama of Gothic art: it is intertwined lyricism and tragic affects, spirituality and satire, the fantastic, the grotesque and the accuracy nature. The emotional structure of Gothic art is the aspiration of shapes, rhythm of the draperies in the sculpture, the intensity and depth of color in the stained glass Windows. Gothic was the heyday of portrait miniatures, and the appearance of easel painting, of the rise of the decorative arts associated with the rise of the Guild crafts: carving stone, wood and bone, pottery and glassmaking, metal parts, decorated with stones and enamel, fabrics and tapestries.